Christianity has its roots in the monotheistic religion of the Israelites, that we read about in the Old Testament. Christians consider the Old Testament as the foundation of their faith, and include it as part of their own scriptures. But in spite of the Old Testament’s unequivocal teaching that God is One and not a man or a son of man, Christians have made the rather strange assertion that the God of the Israelites is a “trinity” and that Jesus – a man born of a woman – is the second person of that “trinity” as “God the son”.

Trinitarian Christians often utilize the Old Testament to argue that God is, in fact, a “trinity”. This is strange considering the Jews, from whom they inherited the Old Testament, never understood God as being “triune” in all their history. If the Bible has Jewish roots, and if the Jews never believed that God is a “trinity” or that He walked the earth in the form of a man, it raises the question: Where did these ideas come from? In numerous passages in the Old Testament, God explicitly declares He alone is God and that He cannot be likened to anything. God explicitly and unequivocally warns against being represented by images, even that of humans. In this regard, there is simply no room for the ideas of a “triune” God and the godhood of Jesus, the son of Mary. The Old Testament’s language and phrasing very plainly points to a monotheistic faith.

If at all it is claimed that the Old Testament proves the “trinity”, it is only so because Trinitarian Christians are reading the doctrine of the “trinity” back into the Old Testament. Trinitarian Christians often deploy fuzzy phraseology and semantic arguments to try to force-fit the “trinity” and Jesus’ godhood into the Old Testament. By forcing things to fit where they simply cannot, Trinitarian Christians will argue that the One God of the Old Testament is actually the “trinity” and that Jesus is “fully man and fully God”. Such an approach is akin to shooting arrows first and then painting targets where the arrowheads hit.

The Christian idea that God descended in the form of a human is far removed from the strict monotheism of the Old Testament and is, instead, virtually identical to the Hindu concept of “avatars”, i.e. human forms assumed by the transcendental God. It is also a known fact that many other cultures (such as those of the Romans, Greeks, Scandinavians, Babylonians etc.) had anthropomorphic deities that were represented in the forms of men and women. The religion of the Biblical Israelites stood apart from its contemporaries solely due to its conception of God being an absolute One and without form – including that of a human.

The very notion of a triune God rests entirely upon the assumed godhood of the Messiah, Jesus. The “trinity” collapses once the notion of Jesus’ godhood is refuted using nothing but the New Testament. This will be done through numerous proof-texts, that – God willing – will be presented in this article.

I have broadly categorized the proof-texts under these 3 headings:
A. The humanity of Jesus
B. Jesus’ subordination to God
C. Jesus’ shortcomings as “God”

Certainly, some proof-texts may fit into more than one category, but my intent was to have a general system of categorization that would facilitate quick referencing. God willing, this article will reach and impact those it is being written for.

May God open our eyes to the truth.

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THE HUMANITY OF JESUS

1. Jesus’ had a genealogy and was descended from David

This is the genealogy of Jesus the Messiah the son of David… – Matthew 1:1

As Jesus went on from there, two blind men followed him, calling out, “Have mercy on us, Son of David!” – Matthew 9:27

The crowds that went ahead of him and those that followed shouted, “Hosanna to the Son of David!” – Matthew 21:9

…regarding his Son, who as to his earthly life was a descendant of David… – Romans 1:3

The Eternal God simply does not have a lineage or human ancestry and so Jesus was not “God”.

2. Jesus was the son of Mary

She will give birth to a son, and you are to give him the name Jesus, because he will save his people from their sins.” – Matthew 1:21

But he did not consummate their marriage until she gave birth to a son. And he gave him the name Jesus. – Matthew 1:25

On coming to the house, they saw the child with his mother Mary, and they bowed down and worshiped him. – Matthew 2:11

When they had gone, an angel of the Lord appeared to Joseph in a dream. “Get up,” he said, “take the child and his mother and escape to Egypt. So Joseph got up and took the Child and His mother while it was still night, and left for Egypt… – Matthew 2:13-14

“Get up, take the child and his mother and go to the land of Israel, for those who were trying to take the child’s life are dead”. So Joseph got up, took the Child and His mother, and came into the land of Israel.… – Matthew 2:20-21

You will conceive and give birth to a son, and you are to call him Jesus. – Luke 1:31

They all joined together constantly in prayer, along with the women and Mary the mother of Jesus, and with his brothers. – Acts 1:14

The mother-son relationship between Mary and Jesus is, by far, one of the most potent arguments against Jesus’ godhood. If Jesus was “God”, then it logically follows that Mary is the “mother of God”, whether or not Christians acknowledge it. The truth is that Mary did not give birth to anything other than a mortal human being.

3. Jesus was likened to Adam

But the gift is not like the trespass. For if the many died by the trespass of the one man, how much more did God’s grace and the gift that came by the grace of the one man, Jesus Christ, overflow to the many – Romans 5:15

So it is written: “The first man Adam became a living being”; the last Adam, a life-giving spirit. – 1Corinthians 5:45

The “man” in the first part of the verse is a reference to Adam, whose sin – according to Christian theology – caused death to enter the world. So why would Paul liken “God the son” to Adam?

4. Jesus ate and drank

The Son of Man came eating and drinking… – Matthew 11:19

Does God eat and drink?

5. Jesus felt hungry and thirsty

The next day as they were leaving Bethany, Jesus was hungry. – Mark 11:2

After fasting forty days and forty nights, he was hungry. – Matthew 4:2

Later, knowing that everything had now been finished, and so that Scripture would be fulfilled, Jesus said, “I am thirsty.” – John 19:28

Does God feel hungry and thirsty?

6. Jesus called himself a “man”

As it is, you are looking for a way to kill me, a man who has told you the truth that I heard from God. – John 8:40

Jesus states he is a man speaking what he heard from God – no different from previous prophets. The Trinitarian claim that Jesus was “fully God and fully man” has no foundation in the Bible.

7. Jesus was seen as a prophet

They looked for a way to arrest him, but they were afraid of the crowd because the people held that he was a prophet. – Matthew 21:46

Jesus was seen as a mortal human prophet. The Israelites always understood prophets as messengers of God who were not, in any way, divine.

8. Jesus was a human mediator

For there is one God and one mediator between God and mankind, the man Christ Jesus, – 1Timothy 2:5

The writer makes it clear that there is One God and Jesus is only a man who mediates between God and mankind.

9. Jesus was a man with God-given authority

When the crowd saw this, they were filled with awe; and they praised God, who had given such authority to man. – Matthew 9:8

The writer very clearly understood Jesus as a man with God-given authority, not a divine man or God in the flesh.

10. Jesus was a man accredited and appointed by God

“Fellow Israelites, listen to this: Jesus of Nazareth was a man accredited by God to you by miracles, wonders and signs, which God did among you through him, as you yourselves know. This man was handed over to you by God’s deliberate plan and foreknowledge; and you, with the help of wicked men, put him to death by nailing him to the cross. – Acts 2:22-23

For he has set a day when he will judge the world with justice by the man he has appointed. He has given proof of this to everyone by raising him from the dead.” – Acts 17:31

Like others before him, Jesus was a man ‘accredited’ and ‘appointed’ by God, and thus Jesus is not “God” himself.

11. Jesus is called a ”son of man”

He then began to teach them that the Son of Man must suffer many things and be rejected by the elders… – Mark 8:31

But I want you to know that the Son of Man has authority on earth to forgive sins.” So he said to the man, – Mark 2:10 (Also see: Matthew 9:6 and Luke 5:24)

In numerous places Jesus addresses himself as the ”son of man” – a phrase applied to humans in the Old Testament. Why would God ever be a ”son of man”? God, in the Old Testament, categorically denies being a man or a son of man. There is no question of a ”son of man” being God.

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B. JESUS’ SUBORDINATION TO GOD

12. Jesus himself has a God

…so that with one mind and one voice you may glorify the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ. – Romans 15:6

(Also see: 2Corinthians 11:31, Ephesians 1:3, Ephesians 1:17, Ephesians 3:14, Colossians 1:3, 1Peter 1:3)

But I want you to realize that the head of every man is Christ, and the head of the woman is man, and the head of Christ is God. – 1Corinthians 11:3

The New Testament routinely states that God and Jesus are separate persons and that God is also the God of Jesus. In the verses above, God is the God OF Jesus, thus ruling out any possibility that Jesus is God or co-equal with God.

13. Jesus taught to worship and pray to God

Jesus said to him, “Away from me, Satan! For it is written: ‘Worship the Lord your God, and serve him only.'” – Matthew 4:10

But when you pray, go into your room, close the door and pray to your Father, who is unseen. Then your Father, who sees what is done in secret, will reward you. – Matthew 6:6

“But an hour is coming, and now is, when the true worshipers will worship the Father in spirit and truth; for such people the Father seeks to be His worshipers – John 4:23

Jesus directed all worship only to God, who he called the “Father”, and not the “God the son” or the “God, the Holy Spirit”. Jesus never demanded worship for himself.

14. Jesus prayed to God while submitting to His will

Going a little farther, he fell with his face to the ground and prayed, “My Father, if it is possible, may this cup be taken from me. Yet not as I will, but as you will.” – Matthew 26:39

During the days of Jesus’ life on earth, he offered up prayers and petitions with fervent cries and tears to the one who could save him from death, and he was heard because of his reverent submission. – Hebrews 5:7

Jesus prays to the “Father” – the first person of the so-called “trinity”. God is sovereign and submits to nobody. Jesus on the other hand submits to the will of God, which demonstrates that Jesus was subordinate to God, and therefore could not have been “God” in any way or form.

15. Jesus emphasized doing the will of God and not his own.

“My food,” said Jesus, “is to do the will of him who sent me and to finish his work. – John 4:34

“Not everyone who says to me, ‘Lord, Lord,’ will enter the kingdom of heaven, but only the one who does the will of my Father who is in heaven. – Matthew 7:21

For I have come down from heaven not to do my will but to do the will of him who sent me. – John 6:38

I know that his command leads to eternal life. So whatever I say is just what the Father has told me to say.” – John 12:50

Jesus found it important to do the will of God – not his own – and taught the same to others. Thus, he could not have been God.

16. Jesus said God is greater than him

My Father, who has given them to me, is greater than all; no one can snatch them out of my Father’s hand. – John 10:29

If you loved me, you would be glad that I am going to the Father, for the Father is greater than I. – John 14:28

Jesus plainly makes it clear that God is greater than him and thus Jesus could not have been God. A monotheist would know that there is nobody greater than God.

17. Jesus was circumcised according to the Law

On the eighth day, when it was time to circumcise the child, he was named Jesus, the name the angel had given him before he was conceived. – Luke 2:21

Did God have to keep the physical sign of His covenant that He made with his own people? Obviously not. Like any other Israelite, Jesus had to be circumcised on the eighth day as per Israelite Law.

18. Jesus was presented to God according to the Law

When the time came for the purification rites required by the Law of Moses, Joseph and Mary took him to Jerusalem to present him to the Lord – Luke 2:22

Jesus was presented to God in the temple, like any other Israelite firstborn. Mary and Joseph were keeping the commands that God gave to the Israelites.

19. Jesus affirmed the Shema

One of the teachers of the law came and heard them debating. Noticing that Jesus had given them a good answer, he asked him, “Of all the commandments, which is the most important?”.”The most important one,” answered Jesus, “is this: ‘Hear, O Israel: The Lord our God, the Lord is one’. – Mark 12:28-29

Jesus affirmed the Shema – the Israelite statement of faith in One God, which would have applied to Jesus, who was an Israelite himself. Jesus did not attempt to modify it so as to accommodate a “trinity” or his own supposed godhood. How, then, do Trinitarians see the “trinity” and Jesus’ godhood in the Shema?

20. Jesus identified as a Jew

You Samaritans worship what you do not know; we worship what we do know, for salvation is from the Jews. – John 4:22

Jesus identifies as part of the monotheistic Jewish community, and thus would have never claimed Godhood.

21. Jesus’ God is the God of the people

‘I ascend to My Father and your Father, and My God and your God.” – John 20:17

This proves Jesus was part of a community that worshiped God, and was thus not “God” himself.

22. Jesus at the right hand of God

After the Lord Jesus had spoken to them, he was taken up into heaven and he sat at the right hand of God. – Mark 16:19

But from now on, the Son of Man will be seated at the right hand of the mighty God.” – Luke 22:69

“I am,” said Jesus. “And you will see the Son of Man sitting at the right hand of the Mighty One and coming on the clouds of heaven.” – Mark 14:62

“You have said so,” Jesus replied. “But I say to all of you: From now on you will see the Son of Man sitting at the right hand of the Mighty One and coming on the clouds of heaven.” – Matthew 26:64

But Stephen, full of the Holy Spirit, looked up to heaven and saw the glory of God, and Jesus standing at the right hand of God. – Acts 7:55

Christ Jesus who died–more than that, who was raised to life-is at the right hand of God and is also interceding for us. – Romans 8:34

After he had provided purification for sins, he sat down at the right hand of the Majesty in heaven. – Hebrews 1:3

We do have such a high priest, who sat down at the right hand of the throne of the Majesty in heaven, – Hebrews 8:1

But when this priest had offered for all time one sacrifice for sins, he sat down at the right hand of God, – Hebrews 10:12

For the joy set before him he endured the cross, scorning its shame, and sat down at the right hand of the throne of God.- Hebrews 12:2

If Jesus was “God”, why do we have so many verses mentioning that he sits at ”the right hand” of God? This clearly proves that Jesus is separate from God.

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C. JESUS’ SHORTCOMINGS AS “GOD”

23. Jesus had to learn obedience

Son though he was, he learned obedience from what he suffered… – Hebrew 5:9

If Jesus needed to learn obedience to God, he simply could not have been God.

24. Jesus had to be made perfect

…and, once made perfect, he became the source of eternal salvation for all who obey him. – Hebrew 5:9

If Jesus was “God”, shouldn’t he, by nature, be perfect?

25. Jesus is lesser than the third person of the so-called “trinity”

Anyone who speaks a word against the Son of Man will be forgiven, but anyone who speaks against the Holy Spirit will not be forgiven, either in this age or in the age to come. – Matthew 12:32

Speaking against “God the son” is forgivable, but that doesn’t seem apply to speaking against the Holy Spirit. This proves that the members of the so called “trinity” are unequal in status and that there exists a hierarchy within the “trinity” – no different from the pantheons of pagan religions.

26. Jesus felt forsaken

About three in the afternoon Jesus cried out in a loud voice, “Eli, Eli, lema sabachthani?” (“My God, my God, why have you forsaken me?”). – Matthew 27:46

Why would “God the son”, cry out to God about being forsaken?

27. Jesus was made lower than the angels

But we do see Jesus, who was made lower than the angels for a little while… – Hebrews 2:9

Why would “God” who created the angels be made “lower than the angels”, even if for “a little while”?

28. Jesus doesn’t get to decide who sits to his left and right

Jesus said to them, “You will indeed drink from my cup, but to sit at my right or left is not for me to grant. These places belong to those for whom they have been prepared by my Father.” – Matthew 20:21,23

If Jesus was “God”, how is it that he doesn’t get to decide who sits to his left and right? Jesus also states that only the Father decides the places to Jesus’ right and left.

29. Jesus is given authority, glory, honour, power and exaltation by God

Then Jesus came to them and said, “All authority in heaven and on earth has been given to me. – Matthew 28:18

He received honor and glory from God the Father when the voice came to him from the Majestic Glory, saying, “This is my Son, whom I love; with him I am well pleased.” – 2Peter 1:17

Therefore God exalted him to the highest place and gave him the name that is above every name, – Philippians 2:9

The God of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob, the God of our fathers, has glorified his servant Jesus. – Acts 3:13

Jesus replied, “If I glorify myself, my glory means nothing. My Father, whom you claim as your God, is the one who glorifies me. – John 8:54

how God anointed Jesus of Nazareth with the Holy Spirit and power, and how he went around doing good and healing all who were under the power of the devil, because God was with him. – Acts 10:38

God’s honour and glory is His own and was not given to Him by anybody. God by nature is exalted and is the sole possessor of glory, honour and power. If Jesus was “God”, why would he need to be “given” glory and honour?

30. Jesus does not know the day or hour

“But about that day or hour no one knows, not even the angels in heaven, nor the Son, but only the Father” – Matthew 24:36

If Jesus was “God”, why didn’t he know the day or hour’?

31. Jesus was raised by God

And if the Spirit of him who raised Jesus from the dead is living in you, he who raised Christ from the dead will also give life to your mortal bodies because of his Spirit who lives in you. – Romans 8:11
(Also see: Romans 10:59, 1Corinthians 6:4, 2Corinthians 4:14, 1Thessalonians 1:10, Hebrew 13:20, 1Peter 1:21, 2Timothy 2:8)

The fact that Jesus had to be raised by Someone other than him proves that Jesus was not God, that is if “God” can even die in the first place.

32. Jesus could do nothing of his own

By myself I can do nothing; I judge only as I hear, and my judgment is just, for I seek not to please myself but him who sent me. – John 5:30

Jesus gave them this answer: “Very truly I tell you, the Son can do nothing by himself; he can do only what he sees his Father doing, because whatever the Father does the Son also does.- John 5:19

So Jesus said, “When you have lifted up the Son of Man, then you will know that I am he and that I do nothing on my own but speak just what the Father has taught me. – John 8:28

Jesus states that he does nothing of his own and that he does as he is told. This proves that Jesus was not the Almighty Sovereign God at all.

33. Jesus’ teaching and words were not his own

Jesus answered, “My teaching is not my own. It comes from the one who sent me. – John 7:16

These words you hear are not my own; they belong to the Father who sent me. – John 14:24

For I did not speak on my own, but the Father who sent me commanded me to say all that I have spoken. – John 12:49

Jesus’ teachings and words are from God. Jesus is simply doing as he is told. Does this sound like God to you?

34. Jesus questioned being called “good”

“Why do you call me good?” Jesus answered. “No one is good–except God alone. – Luke 18:19

Jesus questions being called “good”, he would not have proclaimed being God.

35. Jesus was tempted

Then Jesus was led by the Spirit into the wilderness to be tempted by the devil. – Matthew 4:1

…where for forty days he was tempted by the devil. – Luke 4:2

For we do not have a high priest who is unable to empathize with our weaknesses, but we have one who has been tempted in every way, just as we are – yet he did not sin. – Hebrews 4:15

If Jesus was “God”, it’s beyond absurd to think Satan would ever dare to tempt God. The New Testament itself makes it clear that God cannot be tempted.

36. Jesus was not considered “God” by his followers

No one has ever seen God; but if we love one another, God lives in us and his love is made complete in us. – 1John 4:12

This passage requires special attention as it was written after Jesus’ death and resurrection. If Jesus’ disciples knew Jesus as “God”, why does the writer echo the Old Testament idea that no man has seen God? Was not Jesus, whom he saw every day, “God” to him?

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The New Testament is rather consistent in its portrayal of Jesus as a man, not as God or even anywhere close to being equal to God. Granted, there are a number of passages that Trinitarian Christians will continue to cite as proofs that God is a “trinity” and that Jesus is “God the son”. However, the multitude of passages that unmistakably present Jesus as the human son of Mary living in submission to God cannot be brushed aside. Instead, they must be given precedence over any vague “proof-texts” that are cited in favour of the “trinity” and Jesus’ godhood.
The Old Testament is foundational to the Christian faith. Therefore, the New Testament must be studied in light of its predecessor and not the other way round. The New Testament cannot be interpreted in a way that violates the Old Testament idea of the monotheistic nature of God. When this is sincerely done, Jesus is seen as a human who had submitted to God in all he did – in words, deeds and worship. Jesus was a man. A very special man, but a man nonetheless.

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